Tinto Cão is a historic wine grape from Portugal and is primarily grown in the Douro, Dão, and Lisbon regions. It is used in port wines as well as dry table reds, roses, and dessert wines globally. Tinto Cão produces full-bodied wines with fruity and floral aromas. The variety has high vigor and good fruit quality in hot and dry climates, though yields may be relatively low. In the Parlier (Fresno County, California) trial it exhibited low to moderate yields and little rot.
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Graciano is a Spanish red wine grape of ancient origin and has been grown all around the Mediterranean under various synonyms. It is not particularly productive, due to low fertility, small clusters, and small berries, but there has been increased interest in this variety because its fruit quality potential is high, even when grown in warm or hot climates. Its acidity, tannins, and aroma are particularly notable.
Lomanto is an interspecific hybrid (Vitis spp.) red wine grape variety with Pierce’s Disease (Xylella fastidiosa) tolerance. Vines are moderate vigor with an upright, spindly growth habit. Clusters are small to medium with medium sized berries. Lomanto produces intensely colored juice and wine. Although Lomanto is primarily grown as a backyard grape, limited commercial acreage exists in Texas and in other states in the Southeastern U.S. Lomanto was developed by Thomas Volney Munson in Denison, Texas in 1902.
Black Spanish is an interspecific hybrid (Vitis aestivalis x Vitis vinifera L.) red wine grape variety that’s Pierce’s Disease (Xylella fastidiosa) tolerant. Vines are moderate vigor with an upright growth habit and large leaves. In Texas, Black Spanish is productive, producing deeply colored red wines often finished in a Port style. Downy mildew can be a problem under humid, wet conditions. In the U.S., Black Spanish is also known as Lenoir, but in Europe is it primarily known as Jacquez.
Ségalin is a red wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) variety from France that was selected from a planned cross of the varieties Jurançon noir and Portugais made in 1957 by Paul Truel. Robinson et al. (2012) described the vines as having low vigor in warmer climates, but vigor and yields were adequate in a San Joaquin Valley trial, a hot climate region. Berries accumulate very high anthocyanin content, and make deeply-colored wines, even in the San Joaquin Valley. Bunch rot was a problem in some years.
Teroldego is an Italian red wine grape of ancient origin. It has compact clusters with medium to large berries. The berries have high anthocyanin content, even in warm climates, and wines are typically fruity, with soft tannins (D’Agato, 2014). Good fruit and wine quality and adaptability to warm and hot climate regions have increased interest in Teroldego in California and elsewhere.
Durif arose from a natural cross of Peloursin and Syrah in the 1860s in France. Vines have low to moderate vigor and moderate yield potential. Durif berries have high anthocyanin and tannin content, even when grown in warm climates. The berries are prone to sunburn and shrivel, and the clusters to bunch rot. However, these issues can be managed to some extent with appropriate cultural practices. Durif wines are typically dark-colored and full-bodied.
Marselan is a red wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) variety from France that was selected from a planned cross, in 1961, of Cabernet Sauvignon and Garnacha. It was initially neglected because its traits didn’t meet the needs of the industry at the time, but viticulturists came to appreciate its disease resistance and fruit quality, leading to its official release in 1990. Since then, its reputation has only improved, and recent a trial in the San Joaquin Valley of California bolstered its growing reputation for producing high quality red wine grapes in warm and hot climate regions.
Marsanne is a white wine grape cultivar native to the Rhône Valley region of France where it is found growing with other white wine grapes including Roussanne, Grenache Blanc, Viognier, Picpoul blanc, Clairette, Picardin and Muscat blanc. In California, it is productive, vigorous and well suited to warm regions (especially Winkler Region III), though it performed poorly in Parlier, a hot region (Winkler Region V). It is not widely grown in the United States. Under the best growing conditions and with skilled wine making, it can be made into long lived and interesting wines, especially when blended with other members of the Rhône wine grape family. It is susceptible to powdery mildew and bunch rot and requires careful attention in the vineyard to show its greatest potential in the wine bottle.
Fiano, an ancient variety from Campania, in southern Italy, “may well be Italy’s greatest native white grape” (D’Agata, 2014). It is versatile and fit for a variety of wine styles, “from light to full-bodied, dry to sweet, easygoing to very ageworth” (D’Agata, 2014). Fiano’s origin in southern Italy, and its reputation for producing high quality fruit and wine, contributed to its selection for a warm-climate wine grape variety trial at the UC Kearney Agricultural Center, in Parlier, California, which has a hot (Winkler region V) climate. In Parlier, Fiano produced moderate yields of fruit from which excellent quality white wines were consistently produced. Desirable traits included good acidity, and excellent flavor. Currently (2021) there are four selections available at Foundation Plant Services, although two of the four were selected from the same vineyard in Hopland, CA. The selection tested in the San Joaquin Valley was FPS 03.