Clusters of Black Spanish grapes

Black Spanish

Synonyms: Lenoir, Jacquez
Keywords: black, hybrid, Pierce’s Disease resistant, seeded, and wine

Black Spanish is an interspecific hybrid (Vitis aestivalis x Vitis vinifera L.) red wine grape variety that’s Pierce’s Disease (Xylella fastidiosa) tolerant. Vines are moderate vigor with an upright growth habit and large leaves. In Texas, Black Spanish is productive, producing deeply colored red wines often finished in a Port style. Downy mildew can be a problem under humid, wet conditions. In the U.S., Black Spanish is also known as Lenoir, but in Europe is it primarily known as Jacquez.

Adaptability: Moderate to hot climate, areas affected by Pierce's disease
Berry Color: Black
Berry Maturity: Mid-Season
Berry Size: Small
Cluster Compactness: Well-filled
Cluster Size: Small
Fruit Use: Wine
Pruning: Spur
Seeds: Seeded
Soluble Solids: 23° Brix
Species / Varieties in Pedigree: Vitis vinifera, Vitis aestivalis
Vine Vigor: Moderate
Yield Potential: Moderate

Figures

Figure 1 'Black Spanish' leaves and clusters of grapes.

Figure 1 'Black Spanish' leaves and clusters of grapes.

Figure 2 'Black Spanish' grapevines in a vineyard.

Figure 2 'Black Spanish' grapevines in a vineyard.

Figure 3 Clusters of 'Black Spanish' grapes.

Figure 3 Clusters of 'Black Spanish' grapes.

Origins and History

The origin of Black Spanish is unknown. Robinson et al. (2012), reports that Black Spanish may have originated around the 18th century in Georgia or South Carolina near the Savannah River. The authors also report other, less likely, hypothesis including that Black Spanish was brought from France under the name Blue French around 1750 or that it originated on the Island of Madiera where it was once popular.

Vine Traits

Black Spanish is fruitful on basal nodes and can be cordon-trained and spur pruned. Vines are moderate  vigor with large, dark green leaves. Petiolar sinus is V-shaped, and margins are toothed. Yield potential is moderate (Table 1). Clusters are medium with small spherical berries. Black Spanish is highly susceptible to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), but resistant to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator).

Vineyard Considerations

In Texas, vines trained to bilateral cordons and pruned to 2-bud spurs averaged 30 clusters/vine (Table 1). Cluster were well-filled with small spherical berries averaging 1.2 g. At the vine spacing used in the trial (6’ x 10’) and shoot density of 2 shoots/foot of canopy, yield was estimated at 3.68 tons/acre. Black Spanish is often grown on its own roots where it appears to have moderate to good alkaline soil tolerance.

Quality

Black Spanish can produce densely colored red wines even in hot climate regions. Black Spanish wines have low tannin concentrations either due to low tannin production in fruit and/or protein precipitation. In Texas, Black Spanish wines finished in a Port-style are often favored.

Tables

References

Robinson, J., J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz. 2012. Wine Grapes. HarperCollins, New York

Contributor

Justin Scheiner

Justin Scheiner

Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Texas A & M.

jscheiner@tamu.edu
Website  

Reviewer

Matthew Fidelibus

Matthew Fidelibus

Cooperative Extension Specialist, Viticulture
University of California
Agriculture and Natural Resources

mwfidelibus@ucdavis.edu
Website  

Article Submitted: January 16, 2022
Article Updated: